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Scale & Rust

The Scale and Rust Problem

What is Limescale?
Scale mainly consists of calcium and magnesium - two minerals that by themselves have a healthy effect on the human body. However, what is good for living organisms quickly becomes a scale problem as it deposits in the piping system, in machinery or on surfaces outside the piping system. So-called hard water holds high concentrations of calcium: the more calcium in the water, the harder the water and more problems.
   
     
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The Formation of Scale Problems
   
Scale builds up whenever hard water flows through a pipe. Liquid calcium in untreated water crystallizes into a sticky structure (obr. 1). These crystals adhere to each other, adhere to surfaces and immediately produce solid scale deposits that have a very destructive effect..    
Scale grows in particular when the water pressure changes. This happens when water changes direction in a bend or intersection which then causes turbulence; or when it leaves the piping system through a faucet. This drop in pressure enhances the formation of calcium crystals, which form a sticky structure that deposits anywhere. How scale is killing water heaters
 
     
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More scale-related problems:
rust and bacteria
Scale is a foreign substance in the pipe wall, which causes huge problems by acting as a block. Unfortunately, scale deposits also attract other unwanted substances which again create even more problems and threats:
   
     
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Rust - the common problem with scale
The main components of scale are calcium and magnesium. This would lead us to believe that scale deposits have a white color. However, most scale deposits are brown. As soon as scale deposits built up, all iron and oxidized iron particles imbed into the scale. This also means that rust is firmly attached to the pipe which causes a serious threat to the pipe by pitting corrosion.
   
     
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Bacterial growth - the side effect of scale
Scale deposits are also perfect breeding ground for bacteria and other unwanted micro-organisms. As the deposits have an uneven, rough surface, these little sockets are a perfect hide-out for bacteria to nest in. Whether in cold or hot water, you will always face an increase in potentially dangerous bacteria growth on the scale.
   
     
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Problems caused by Scale and Rust
   
kalk_scale_red_cross Blocked piping system
kalk_scale_red_cross Loss of water pressure due to a reduced pipe diameter
kalk_scale_red_cross Rust accumulation in the pipes that may lead to corrosion
kalk_scale_red_cross Bacterial growth in drinking water carrying pipes
kalk_scale_red_cross Repeated repairs or replacement of household appliances
kalk_scale_red_cross Replacement of the whole piping system
kalk_scale_red_cross Loss of energy in the hot water circuit and high costs for heating
kalk_scale_red_cross Dull surfaces in bathroom and kitchen
kalk_scale_red_cross High cleaning costs and the need of aggressive cleaning agents
kalk_scale_red_cross Malfunctioning machinery
kalk_scale_red_cross High production costs due to maintenance
kalk_scale_red_cross Long pauses in production when machinery has to be maintaned and cleaned leading to inefficient production planning
kalk_scale_red_cross Decrease in productivity
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Water Hardness Classification

Water Hardness

Water
hardness
ppm
Parts per million (mg/l)
GPG
grains per
gallons US
°dH
German
hardness
°fH
French
hardness
very soft 1-70 1.0 - 4.2 1.0 - 4.0 0.1 - 7.0
soft 71-125 4.3 - 7.2 4.1 - 7.9 7.1 - 12.5
medium hard 126-250 7.3 - 22 8.0 - 14 12.6 - 25
hard 251-500 23 - 30 15 - 21 25.1 - 50
extremely hard 501 and more 31 and more 22 and more 51 and more

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Water Hardness in your country
   
     
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